Asexual females in both of the final two growth seasons lived longer than females in season 1 although culture chemostat and bioassay conditions were not changed between seasons. Net reproductive rate of asexual and sexual females for the first and final two seasons. Environmental variables such as conductivity salinity and temperature may fluctuate in association with hydroperiod, impacting and at times imposing costs on fitness and life history traits Campillo et al. This may represent an indirect effect, such as decreased extrinsic mortality factors and non-limiting resources continuous algal food inflow allowing for longer post-reproductive life. Cohort life history assays in the 1 st and final two growth seasons 5 th , 6 th revealed changes in lifespan over time, with significant contributions from the main effect of season and the interaction of season with reproductive physiology mictic status, i. Indeed, a recent study reported that calorically restricted B. For lifespan, in addition to total lifespan we tested effects on square root transformed pre-reproductive, reproductive, and post-reproductive lifespan.
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